Thursday, September 17, 2015

Hometown of Yellow Emperor mausoleum and Memorial which is more authentic Shaanxi

Recently, the mausoleum in Shaanxi and Henan Zheng Huangdi's hometown and because to worship Huangdi's problems had a falling out.

First September 7, 2015 Guangming daily reported, ten session National Standing Committee Deputy, Chairman of the, and Chinese yan culture Institute President Xu jialu, in recently by Chinese yan culture Institute and Henan CPPCC joint hosted of "Huangdi hometown baizu ceremony and national culture construction" experts seminar Shang statement said, should "put worship offering Huangdi rose for country offering", and "history on Huangdi on ancestors is ' worship Temple not worship Ling '", so country offering Huangdi of locations should in Henan new Zheng Huangdi hometown. Experts and scholars attending the seminar as well as Professor of Tsinghua University Li Xueqin, Peking University Professor Li Boqian, Chinese Academy of social sciences and academician Liu Qingzhu.

Subsequently, on September 10, the incumbent Vice Mayor of Xian, Northwest University, former principal, Office of the historian in Ta Kung Pao Fang Guanghua, Shaanxi website "Ta Kung Pao, Western business network" published the refutation of the article on the national ceremonies for Huangdi exactly where? That "is to worship in the ancient mausoleum tomb" and the temple is not in xinzheng, Henan province, but in the "Central emperors established the temple and sacrifices."

"From the perspective of existing literature, Tomb offerings are the mainstream"

Avatar from the Yellow Emperor Qianlong of the Wuxi Qian family genealogy.

Xu and Fang Guanghua's contention is that, the Chinese State did worship the Yellow Emperor mausoleum Festival.

The so-called Temple and Tomb offerings, in simple terms, the main difference is that places of worship space: held in temples, Temple, mausoleum Festival is held at the mausoleum. Obviously dispute behind this issue, actually if you want to worship the Yellow Emperor rose to the National Memorial, the memorial site should be in the Yellow Emperor Temple is also located in located in the mausoleum Tomb.

Xu believes that ancient ancestors to the Yellow Emperor is "worship not worship the temple mausoleum." "Especially after the Zhou dynasty, ancestor worship is conducted in the temple, which would solve the hometown of xinzheng Huang di baizu relationship between graves and huangling in Shaanxi Province. "

Fang Guanghua CE Fu Yuan GUI invoked the book of great Qing code documentation to refute it, "legend is not, so far as recorded history, history is in the mausoleum Tomb offerings. "As recorded by the CE Fu Yuan GUI, after five years of the Tang dynasty (770) jiedushi of the book said a surname Fang, Fang xuanyuan Huangdi should reset the temple, and in the worship, be recognized by the Central Government. "From now on, to worship in the mausoleum Tomb as national festivals, and has never been interrupted. Even the Yuan dynasty, or lay waste the qiaoshan mausoleum three years of sacrifices. "

Clearly, the historical data show that national sacrifices in ancient emperors does Tomb offerings. Indeed, historiography of ancient etiquette system in China who asked not to be named, told the Post reporter, from existing sources, Tomb offerings is the mainstream of the Yellow Emperor.

But according to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Deputy Lei Wen, a researcher at the Institute of history of the outside of the temple: the study of the Sui and Tang dynasty national sacrifices and religious, Fang Guanghua Tang cited an example, do not seem to have as evidence of State formally sacrificial to the Yellow Emperor. Lei Wen research said, Northern Wei is will first generation Emperor (including Emperor Yao, and Shun, and Yu, and week public) official into national worship code of dynasty, to Tang, these first generation Emperor of directory constantly expanded, but and no put Huangdi included national sacrifice ceremony code, Tang cases agreed will Huangdi "column Yu Sidian" just showed that national admitted its legitimacy just, "so in Fiona Yuan nine years (793 years) book of Datang rural worship recorded by column first generation Emperor of sacrifice list in the and no see shaft Huangdi. " "Editorial" car equipped with glass doors?

Except there is no tomb offerings of issues, on Temple place, Fang Guanghua Xu jialu also be refuted. Fang Guanghua recite the ancient temple of emperors at the national level, successive emperors established in Central Temple and sacrifice. This view in the relevant academic research, basic is incontrovertible.

Worship Yellow Emperor battle

Painted portrait of Emperor of Ming dynasty painter Qiu Ying

In fact, both Shaanxi and Henan to worship Yellow Emperor's politics have played more than once. After the founding of the Shaanxi from 1955 began to worship Yellow Emperor activities chaired by the local government, while Henan is from 2006 to worship.

In March or April 2009, two ceremonies held to worship the Yellow Emperor, on an unprecedented scale, Shaanxi Party invitation to Lien Chan, Henry Lee, Soong side is carried out in Henan province, Yu Qiuyu, Pearson VUE the press at home and abroad the ancestor worship ceremony which was broadcast live on two occasions and follow-up reports.

However, competition is not limited to the Yellow Emperor, Henan and Shaanxi. In addition to outside the mausoleum in Shaanxi, and Henan Jingshan Huangdi mausoleum, Hebei, Gansu Zhengning argumentation about the mausoleum. Hometown of Yellow Emperor "naming rights", except in xinzheng, Henan, Gansu Tianshui was unwilling to yield to others, for example, has published articles in Journal of Tianshui normal xuanyuan Huangdi's birthplace and the demonstration of the sacrifice on the hometown of Huangdi belongs in Tin Shui Wai in Qingshui County, Gansu province. Of course, the Shaanxi in the mausoleum of Henan hometown of Yellow Emperor and most recognized and attention.

Last race for the Yellow Emperor, more or less fighting than out. And the taste is different, because once the National Memorial Service, then there must be only one is Orthodox.

From huangtong to national unification

Chinese people call themselves descendants of today, no doubt in people's minds is the ancestor of the Yellow Emperor, but in practice, this concept is gradually built up in the Republic of China in late Qing dynasty.

Both Henan and Shaanxi, with historical evidence, is only evidence that emperors have the pedigree of the descendants of the Yellow Emperor. Taiwan "Academia Sinica" Professor Shen Songqiao, in his famous article on my blade heart: myth and the Yellow Emperor in late Qing dynasty in the national construction of note, the ancient monarchy through a series of rituals, fathers, the Yellow Emperor, and established a virtual "political blood" s exclusive lineage of the Royal family to the Yellow Emperor Zu Yuan.

To the beginning of the 19 century, 20th century, profound national crisis the Yellow Emperor started "flying into the homes of ordinary people", being discussed as the ancestors of the Chinese nation, began to be transformed into historical symbols of national identity. Against Manchu rule at that time, the revolutionaries to exclude people from the Chinese people and the descendants of the Yellow Emperor's discourse. Constitutionalists did not oppose the Qing rule is considered "400 million people are from the Yellow Emperor".

But in the schedule under the background of calls, Act of sacrifice to mausoleum there have been members of the Alliance. In 1908, the Shaanxi branch of Tong Meng Hui held secret meetings to discuss the implementation of the programme of the Alliance, decided during Chung Yeung Festival jisao mausoleum, said revival of the Chinese nation's determination.

After the revolution, mastering the Chinese regime's revolutionary theory submit the constitutionalists national speech, advocating the "five families". At this point, the Chinese nation was no longer of race but culture, identity and politics. War of the unanimity requirement, but makes the Yellow Emperor became the symbol of the unity of the Chinese people, which is to sacrifice to the emperor at that time form the historical reasons for the boom.

Today worship Yellow Emperor: culture, politics and economy?

Today, clearly the meaning of the Yellow Emperor worship is different from the period of Republic of China in late Qing dynasty, with strong political connotations. However, all parties involved in the Yellow Emperor worship scholars generally consider is, today we need to worship Huangdi, Chinese all over the world together.

Real economic benefits to the Yellow Emperor worship ceremonies is also great. Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province resumed in 1980 after the memorial ceremony, a large scale year after year, worship programs year by year specifications, construction of scenic area year by year, "ritual economy" has become a brand of tourism in Shaanxi. In March 2006, was held in xinzheng, Henan province "the hometown of Huangdi baizu ceremony", the month he received 1.1 million tourists, "51" golden week and soared to more than 2 million visitors, tourist arrivals, tourism revenues and benefits rose 50%.

In recent years, various recognition Zu Guizong, historical and cultural celebrities compete for growing. Henan zhoukou and Gansu Tin Shui Wai "carved up" has Fuxi; Hubei Takeyama, and Hebei Handan, and Gansu Tin Shui Wai and Shanxi Vang, to "shared" has Nu Wa; Henan jiaozuo, and Hunan yanling and Shanxi Gaoping "dismembered" Yan; Hunan ningyuan with Shanxi yuncheng with "compete for" Shun emperor; with a Zhuge Liang, Shandong linyi offering, Hubei xiangfan offering, Shaanxi Hanzhong offering, birthday offering, and died offering, and mountain offering, sacrifice activities in different of place times staged...... There were "Fuxi around Huang Ti, the cosmopolitan, like apparitions, all over WA" hilarious, even the Pan Gu XI Wang Mu, Sun Wukong was carried out.

If just with the history of traditional and spontaneous behavior is OK, but a lot of public Memorial activity is backed by local government-led and driven. According to incomplete statistics, since 2003, has dozens of local governments were directly involved in such kind of "Memorial". Obviously, these seemingly behind acceptance of ancestry and cultural activities are written "symbol of Economics" and "Economics of tourism".

Back to worship Huangdi battle in Shaanxi, Henan, despite the two of you come to me, but there is little consensus was agreed to worship Yellow Emperor rose to the national level. Many netizens believe that with a national memorial ceremony to strengthen a national collective memory and identity, is the essence of the whole ceremony, but worship doesn't matter who.

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